21 May 2020 Safelight UV FAR UVC: Airborne-mediated microbial diseases like coronavirus, influenza and tuberculosis are major public health challenges.
One way of preventing airborne transmission that has long been established is by inactivating airborne pathogens with UVC ultraviolet light.
What has held this tech back from being implemented widely in public settings is the fact that many conventional UVC light sources are both carcinogenic and tend to induce cataracts.
Now there is SAFELIGHT UV patent-pending FAR UVC lighting that is made in the USA for all sort of public spaces from offices to large stadium venues. The new lighting products are called Wave222 and Wave222 Gateway
The manufacturers hope that their technology could play a big part in bringing everyday life back to normal. They state that FAR UVC Lighting is safe for humans as it does not penetrate human skin or damage the eye’s cornea.
The key advances in UV lighting technology were highlighted by FAR-UVC lamps. These devices operate at a wavelength of 222 nanometers (nm). This frequency doesn’t penetrate skin or the outer layer of the human eye and it is being brought to bear on the fightback against the coronavirus and other superbugs.
The aim of these USA-made products is to be installed at the entrances of buildings, theme parks, transportation terminals and sporting events.
A company spokesman says: “FAR SAFE UVC lighting will be a game-changer for bringing people back to work in offices or other places with large gatherings such as sporting events or even transportation terminals.
“We are here to stop the invisible enemy and help with creating calm and security with FAR UVC lighting in schools, dormitories, office buildings sports arenas, supermarkets, airport, bus, cruise ship and train terminals.”
The FAR UVC 222 nm wavelength was discovered by Dr David Brenner at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City, and SAFELIGHT UV has taken it a step further to develop this technology to provide safe environments for people so they can continue their daily lives.
The way UV lights disinfect is by disrupting the molecular bonds that hold microbial genetic material (proteins) together.
Commonly used lights have wavelengths of 254nm, which have relatively short UV wavelengths— called the “C” category—which can penetrate skin and eyes causing cancer and cataracts.
About Safelight UV FAR UVC:
Safelight UV is a FAR UVC made-in-the-USA lighting manufacturer for human safe UVC lights that kill bacteria and inactivate viruses
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Digital Mortgages by Atom Bank, which has been offering residential deals for nearly two years, has now expanded in to the buy-to-let (BTL) mortgage market through an exclusive, pilot scheme.
Atom bank is regarded as the first in the UK to have been built exclusively for smartphones and tablets.
It began offering its two-year, fixed-rate residential mortgages through independent advisers in December 2016, shortly after the bank launched with two Fixed Saver accounts and an SME business lending product.
Residential mortgage customers are able to track changes in the progress of their mortgage when they have received a decision in principle (DIP) through the Atom app.
In the latest move, the initial product offering consists of two- and five-year BTL remortgages for landlords who have anything from four to 25 properties in their portfolios.
The two-year product is available at up to 75% Loan-To-Value (LTV) at 3.70% (2.95% above the base rate), while the five-year product is also available at 75% LTV, at 3.80% (3.05% above the base rate).
Both products command a 1% product fee and feature a maximum loan period of 25 years. Maria Harris, Atom’s intermediary lending director explains that as the bank’s mortgage proposition expands, the aim is to make mortgages both easy and transparent to buy while offering landlords a “great all-round deal”.
Harris believes this will transform the market, adding that this initial pilot with selected intermediaries will enable the bank to make improvements before rolling out the product to a bigger audience. Atom is also already working on increasing its range to include fixed-rate products.
Selected brokers will not be able to access early repayment charges and Atom says automated valuations may be used in certain cases to speed the process and keep the costs low.
In a separate development Atom and Newcastle University have announced they are conducting research into both how trust works in financial services and to look into developing ways for businesses to design better digital banking services.
The two institutions have set aside three years for the million-pound project, which has been dubbed “FinTrust”. It will involve experts in the fields of computer science, banking and psychology in order to understand why customers are reluctant to trust technology.
Atom and Newcastle are also trying to find parallels between digital design and behavioural science to bring the scope of Open Banking into focus. Atom’s officer in charge of innovation, Edward Twiddy, says that the research will inform Atom and help the bank enhance the design of future innovative products and services. An early application will be in developing the bank’s blockchain to build better mortgages.
Buy-to-let mortgages are specific types of mortgage for people who need financial assistance when they wish to buy and rent out properties. You can find out more with our Buy to Let Mortgage Guide
Legal & General’s new Income Lifetime Mortgage aims to give customers more flexibility when accessing the value of their property in later life
By paying customers a fixed monthly income the mortgage is aimed at people who want to supplement their income.
The new product aims to offer a mortgage solution for those people who would rather have a monthly income instead of a lump sum, or who have not been able to save the amount into their pension as they had hoped.
The lender believes this makes it compelling for those people who want to bridge a gap in their retirement income in order to be able to benefit from a standard of living in later life that is more comfortable.
The mortgage is designed so that the interest will roll up through the life of the loan. Then both the loan and the interest will be recouped by the lender when the property is sold after the last surviving borrower’s death or move into long-term care.
With Income Lifetime Mortgages compound interest’s effect is reduced because funds are released on a monthly basis, rather than as lump sums.
People aged 55 and over who own a property with a minimum value of £100,000 are eligible for Legal & General’s new Income Lifetime Mortgage. Those that take it up will be offered an interest rate that is fixed for life at the outset. Then the monthly income generated by the mortgage will run for a term of 10, 15, 20 or 25 years that is agreed and then cannot be extended.
When the fixed term ends so will the monthly income but interest will continue to roll up until when the mortgage has been repaid. Mortgagees can choose to end the income at any point, but when it is stopped it can’t be restarted.
Steve Ellis, L & G’s Home Finance CEO says that the mortgage will provide that little bit of extra income to pay for things like a day out with the grandchildren or weekends away in the country. Ellis adds that he and his colleagues know how useful this could be for keeping people “doing the things they love”.
He believes it’s a new option giving consumers a chance to enjoy the benefit of their housing wealth with a fixed interest rate for life, along with the security of a regular monthly income for as many as 25 years.
Ellis says that retirement lending has “a bright future ahead for” and L&G is intent on seeing more people enjoying the positive role the value of their homes can play when they get older.
Energy provider E.ON teams up with banking giant BNP Paribas to pilot ‘green mortgages’ that could save homeowners £380 a year.
The aim is to offer homeowners finance via their mortgage of their property. This innovative approach to financing property purchase will mean people who are moving, buying for the first time, or remortgaging their homes will be able borrow more through an ‘energy efficiency home improvement loan’ linked to their mortgage.
It is one of the many arrangements that are on offer for home buyers. To navigate the maze finder UK has a guide to help you better understand how mortgages work and how you should compare the different deals that are out there.
Under the E.ON and BNP Paribas green scheme, the improvement loan financing would come from BNP Paribas Personal Finance and the managed services that install the appropriate energy efficiency solutions would come from E.ON.
According to the innovators, any improvements paid for by the loan could lead to a discounted mortgage rate when the property’s Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) is updated and the energy efficiency measures verified.
The new move comes after Bank of England researchers discovered that people who live in more energy efficient homes pose a lower credit risk.
Their data indicates that about 1.14% of people living in homes that are energy inefficient are in mortgage payment arrears, whereas only 0.93% of people in energy-efficient properties were behind on their payments.
The research concluded that a home’s energy efficiency is “a relevant predictor of mortgage risk”.
According to E.ON and BNP Paribas about 19 million households in Britain fall below the EPC Band C rating and by putting basic measures in place could save up to £380 a year.
E.ON UK CEO Michael Lewis says green mortgages could a “game changer in the delivery of affordable finance”. He is keen for home-owners to step into “energy efficient living”.
Claire Perry, the Minister at the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy who looks after the clean growth brief, says she is delighted to see businesses like E.ON and BNP Paribas Personal Finance seizing the multi-billion pound opportunity that exists to energise communities into tackling “the very serious threat of climate change”.
The UK’s blind, blanket ban on movement during this coronavirus crisis is akin to trying to fly a plane, navigate a ship or drive a car wearing a blindfold and ear plugs!
Compare us to Germany, which is currently testing as many as 500,000 people each week for Covid-19. Britain, on the other hand, is badly lagging behind. In the UK just 104,800 tests have been conducted in the entire period since the end of January.
When we compare the proportion of people infected who go on to die the lowest rates of all are in Germany and Austria. Only around 0.7% of people infected go on to die in these countries.
Indeed, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Centre, of the 53,340 Germans infected just 395 have died. In Austria the figures are 7,712 infections have led to just 58 fatalities.
There is no real difference between the way that Germany tests people and the way we do it in the UK. Where the difference is stark is in the volume of the testing.
Germany now tests as many as 500,000 people a week for coronavirus, while Britain has conducted a measly 104,800 tests in the whole period since January’s end.
Austria is also testing heavily. Its plan is to hit 15,000 tests a day while Britain, with nearly eight times the size of population, says it aims for just 10,000 a day by the end of this month.
In Germany, the Robert Koch Institute, that has the responsibility for officially recording deaths in that country, says it treats “someone to be a corona death” in all cases where some sort of corona infection is proven. This effectively means those deaths counted as corona deaths include ALL deaths that can be associated with Covid-19.
So the German testers include all who have died from Covid-19, including all people who have underlying health problems and are infected even where it’s not even possible to say what actually killed them.
Those who are not tested before they die but are suspected of Covid-19 are tested post-mortem and if there are signs of coronavirus infection, they are listed as Covid-19 deaths.
So the German method counts anyone infected with Covid-19 who goes on to die as a Covid-19 victim regardless of whether it’s proven the virus killed them directly.
That is pretty much how deaths are also counted in the UK. So we are comparing like with like. The reasons for Germany’s lower death toll, are largely down to this extensive testing. The fact is that high testing rates not only assist authorities monitor and understand coronavirus’s spread but also it helps the medics fight Covid-19’s lethality.
With clear knowledge of what is going on and where enables the selective quarantining of those people who have or may have the virus so that the most vulnerable can be better shielded. It means medical attention can be targeted at the vulnerable at an early stage so their chances of survival are increased.
When you’ve played online casino games for a while, you have probably built up a bank of stories about the best and worst experiences. Here are some important things to look out for.
It’s not uncommon for things to start well in an online casino. You receive a welcome bonus and organize funding for your account.
After that, you played a few slots and a variety of table games. But with many online casinos and online football operations it’s when you’ve won some money and asked to cash out that problems can arise. Beware the rogue casinos that ask for loads of documents for verification. They are prolonging the withdrawal process, and you could well get fed up and give up on receiving your money.
When you are looking for a genuine online casino like LSM99 you should expect reliable services and equally reliable customer support.
Never join any unlicensed casinos however attractive and lucrative the bonuses they appear to be offering.
The way to verify that a casino actually holds a genuine license, check for licensing information at the bottom of the website.
Casinos like LSM99 have intuitive, mobile-responsive websites. This is not always the case. Prior to creating your account and depositing money, navigate through the website. If you don’t love the site and find it loads slowly, change the platform. Check out the user-friendliness by clicking through the game categories and playing a few games in demo mode.
Good gambling sites should be as easy to use on your smartphone as on a larger screen.
Before you commit to using a casino, confirm it offers a range of games you like. When playing online slots is what appeals, check the software providers who are supplying the online casino’s games. Nowadays it’s possible to find gambling sites specializing in specific casino games.
Bonuses aren’t the only reason for selecting a casino, but they should be considered. All online casino players deserve good rewards. No deposit offers, for example, may help you test a website’s user-friendliness without the need to spend any money.
Good deposit bonuses can help increase your bankroll. And when they also come with limited wagering requirements, you can fulfil them and cash out your winnings conveniently.
Reliable Customer Support
Customer support is essential when say you forget your password and get stuck recovering your account. An error may erase your account balance, or the withdrawal process could take too long.
In a lot of cases, these issues need to be handled immediately. With a good casino, you should be able to reach out to the support team for help in real-time.
When you choose an online casino don’t rush to make your decision and don’t be distracted by any of the bonuses.
Globalization has dominated the world economy for years. But recent trends are indicating that many major economies are turning their backs on being drawn deeper together. The signs are that there’s a growing desire to be less inter-connected through global networks of capital flows, trade, and technology.
Global trade is becoming less advantageous. There are even cases where it is also on the way to being less feasible.
This is a major turnaround for what in the last half a century had been seen as the prevailing trend that would inexorably move in the same direction.
What is conspiring to slow globalization? The combination of geopolitical shifts, secular trends and trade tensions are just aspects of this story.
Tariffs are a very visible barrier to global trade, but other hurdles, including the US’s foreign investment review, are also diluting any business incentive to globalize, according to senior bankers.
In addition, changes in consumer preferences along with greater purchasing power in emerging markets are boosting regional trade over global trade. Technology is exacerbating these trends by enabling leaner manufacturing methods. The highly acclaimed Dutch trend watcher Adjiedj Bakas calls it “slow-balization”.
When it comes to investment, there are advantages and disadvantages. Barriers to global trade threaten to disrupt major businesses that rely on smooth flows including capital goods, semiconductors, telecoms, and automobiles – indeed any industries where technologies are sensitive and whose supply chains are globally diffuse.
However, increased localization may turn out to be a bonus for those businesses that don’t rely so heavily on foreign markets, and whose products have a critical economic or national security interest. Good examples of these “emerging regional champions” are China’s internet firms, and local payment processors as well as some smaller US internet operators.
Globalization Goes Into Reverse
Even before trade tensions began to reassert themselves, secular winds of change were already blowing.
About 20 years ago, transportation and communication costs were decreasing and long-haul trade across the world’s oceans became prevalent. McKinsey Global Institute research shows that between 2000 and 2012 the share of goods traded between the same region’s countries dropped from 51% to 45%. This trend is now reversing and regional trade is again gaining traction.
Underpinning this are two things. Goods trade is now growing less fast than service trade. And the success of globalization has led to emerging market countries growing rich enough to be consuming more of the very goods that they have been selling.
In hindsight, it’s a natural evolution of globalization, and, according to McKinsey, the consequence is that between 2007 and 2017 the share of output moving across the world’s borders has dropped from 28.1% to 22.5%.
Trade Patterns Change Shape
Trade patterns are also being encouraged to change. McKinsey reports that the old lean manufacturing approach emphasizing low inventory levels -“just-in-time” logistics – is no longer as popular as it once was.
Now just 18% of the world’s goods trade is founded on labor-cost arbitrage. Indeed, McKinsey expects this share to shrink further as companies streamline their supply chains and adopt more automation.
This is very different from the turn of the century when a large number of businesses based decisions about supply-chains on the ability to source low-cost labor, even when it meant shipping supplies, components and finished goods all over the world.
A final aspect that is also making globalization less attractive is technology. Countries are now thinking differently about the link between economic interests and their national security. The US, for example, is now defining its sensitivity in a much broader manner.
So, taking automobiles as an example, the technology on which driverless cars depend is highly likely to have military applications, and the US doesn’t want foreign powers – least of all China – having any knowledge or influence in this field.
Taking Advantage of Slow-balization
Shifting tides create complex dynamics, but investors can still start thinking about the broad implications by seeking answers to a couple of key questions:
How sensitive is a business’s product to a particular country’s economic or national security?
What is the reliance on global supply chains, and does this make sense anymore?
Those businesses that are most vulnerable to the effects of “slow-balization” are the ones dealing in economic and security sensitive technologies and still depending on a supply chain that is globally diffuse. Think European capital goods, autos, telecoms, IT hardware, and semiconductors.
It’s less easy to assess internet companies. While the biggest consumer internet businesses are facing higher costs of doing business because platform health and data security are playing bigger roles, smaller rivals could find they benefit for similar reasons.
It’s highly likely companies dealing in sensitive areas, but not closely entwined with the rest of the world, will be better placed. China’s internet firms, for example, are vital for that country’s economic security and outlook but their business has been focused almost exclusively on China itself.
Another area that is worth considering from an investment perspective is payments. Payment firms could be net beneficiaries because they are tuned into issues of tax collection and banking functions as well as national security, while digital payments is unstoppable irrespective of global trade. As a result, payment schemes that are domestically developed could get the edge.
Solar power is now cheaper than it ever has been. Costs of the technology have been declining for a decade. The building blocks of solar panels, the photovoltaic (PV) modules, are now not only less expensive to produce but they are also more efficient.
In some places around the world generating solar power is now cheaper than producing equivalent amounts of energy with fossil fuels. Solar projects, as they become cheaper, are better able to thrive with fewer subsidies from government. As a consequence, companies are being encouraged to sign long-term agreements with renewable energy developers.
This boost in the share that renewables hold in the energy market is being played out globally, but Europe is at the forefront of progress.
Forecasters are trying to keep up with solar’s surging success. Indeed, the International Energy Agency’s prediction of global solar capacity has had to be increased 15-fold on what it thought would happen back in 2006.
Researchers now estimate that the share of renewables in the European power system will be more than 70% in the next 10 years. And Asia is likely to be hosting over half of the world’s solar installations in the same period.
Future technological advances are bound to enable solar power to generate even more energy. This in turn will cut utility bills and further boost renewables’ share of the global power mix. There are already significant signs of progress all over Europe.
In the first six months of last year France’s solar market increased by 59% driven in the main by large-scale solar installations. Cumulatively the country’s installed PV power generation surpassed a notable 8.5 GW, with newly installed PV capacity achieving 479 MW. France is steadily growing in stature as a generator of solar energy, backed by political will, a well-developed energy industry as well as a robust economy.
Another example is Germany, which has been taking a key lead in the PV power production for many years, and in 2018 achieved the accolade of being the highest ranking country for solar PV per capita. The German government has made renewable energy a high priority, and the aim is to source 80% of electricity from renewable sources by 2050.
Even though historically Italy has relied on foreign imports to supply a significant amount of its energy, as of last year the country has become another major leader in solar power generation and development with solar PV accounting for 7.9% of electricity demand. When the EU set the target of generating 20% of the continent’s energy from renewable sources by 2020, Italy was among 11 nations that were able to reach this objective ahead of the deadline.
Because the UK has so little sun all year around, it’s nowhere near the top of the tables for PV solar power use. However, government initiatives are encouraging businesses, homes and schools to introduce solar panels. This plus the decrease in cost of PV technology has helped the UK become a leader in solar power production. Solar has definitely been increasing in popularity accounting for 3.4% of Britain’s total electricity generation in 2017, and increase from 3.1% the year before. By next Worldwide there are more people now working in solar than on oil rigs and in gas fields. The number of people employed is solar is also three times the size of the coal mining workforce.
The factors that might have contributed to solar’s notable growth not only relate to enhanced awareness of the need for environmental sustainability but also to numerous other initiatives. These include tax credits implemented by the US federal government for people who develop or invest in solar energy.
The residential and commercial solar ITC implemented in 2006 was extended through to 2023. With its compound annual growth of 76%, the ITC has boosted annual solar installation growth in the US by more than 1,600% in the past 10 years.
There is no doubt that the Climate Change Agreement in Paris, even though it’s been snubbed by President Trump, along with other initiatives to reduce global warming, has contributed to solar’s boom. The Paris agreement not only addresses issues including food security, deforestation, and poverty, but it also gives guidelines for what can be done to lower carbon dioxide emissions.
A major soft factor is solar growth is its rising popularity. An increasing number of people now see having solar panels on their properties as a symbol of status. This has been exacerbated by the advances in technology and particularly battery storage. The kit is no longer made up of huge, lead-plate batteries loaded with sulphuric acid and expensive to manufacture. The most modern batteries now use saltwater as the electrolyte. Nowadays they are made out of lithium iron and any risks of thermal and fire hazards have been eliminated.
The future of solar can increasingly be seen in the world’s emerging markets. Africa is a good example. Expanding the existing African power grid is essential, but it’s only part of the continent’s power solution. There is a new breed of African entrepreneurs and innovators who are harnessing mobile money, coupled with advances in solar power to leapfrog Africa’s gaps in power generation.
Take Kenya-based M-Kopa. It generates solar-powered electricity and offers storage solutions to households without access to the conventional grid. It then finances payments over a 12-month period through mobile money accounts. Since it was founded in 2011, M-Kopa has not only sold over 600,000 household kits but it has garnered multinational investments from outfits like Japan’s Mitsui.
Uganda-based Fenix is yet another example. It has sold 140,000 solar power kits, also with the help of mobile money. Fenix has now been acquired by France-based major global energy company Engenie, which is using digital technologies to give 20 million people around the world, decarbonised, decentralized energy by 2020. UK-based BBOXX is another business that is distributing solar kits through its agents in 10 African countries.
With companies like these using business models that enable even the poorest households to get electricity for the first time means that solar’s recent significant growth looks set to get an even more powerful shot in the arm – especially when it is considered that in Africa alone about 70% of households earn less than $5,000 each year.
The global auto business is undergoing profound change on all fronts from the cars being built, through the companies that are building them to the consumers who are buying them.
There is no doubt that things are beginning to look significantly different from how they were just 10 years ago.
However, while expectations for electric vehicles are being scaled back – a process that began back in 2017 – there is one market that is showing signs of roaring ahead: hybrids.
These vehicles that combine a traditional internal combustion engine, along with an electric motor, are in growing demand. Indeed, one recent research report projected the global revenues from hybrid vehicle sales to soar at an exponential compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 20.4% between now and 2026.
With a backdrop that involves increasingly stringent environmental policy worldwide, some analysts are even expecting hybrid or electrified vehicles to be accounting for 35% of global auto sales by 2030.
The fact is that hybrids are bridging the alternative auto power gap while the innovations in battery technology continue to be developed and will eventually make completely electric vehicles much more affordable and convenient.
In the meantime, though, this detour away from electric vehicles (EVs) to hybrids is hardly unexpected. Currently, EVs are considered costly, by no means as easy to use, and much less profitable for the automakers than the more conventional gasoline-powered alternatives they continue to construct.
The engineers accept that the biggest hurdle for EVs is the cost of batteries but innovations have yet to tackle this issue and it is thought that battery deterioration will continue to hold back EV development even after the cost issue is overcome.
As a result, in an era where people are increasingly concerned about climate change and damage to the environment, electrified hybrids are being seen as more practical – and from an investment point of view, more profitable, at least for the next 10 years.
Automotive industry forecasters estimate that it could take that long before the necessary innovations enabling the mass-market construction of lighter, smaller and faster charging solid-state batteries are developed.
It’s noticeable that as a result of these impediments governments around the world have retreated from their previous EV policies in favor of electrified vehicle solutions.
The area where hybrids are expected to be being adopted faster than just about anywhere else is currently in Europe because that continent is ahead on tightening its environmental regulations. Simultaneously, Japan’s plan is to aim for a gradual shift in the direction of electrification by adopting a balanced range of vehicle types including hybrids, plug-in hybrids and vehicles that are capable of running on fuel cells.
The world’s largest EV market is in China and there the Government’s effort is being channelled into a New Energy Vehicle policy, redirecting subsidies to charging infrastructure. China’s move is aimed at closing a $6 trillion cost barrier that is standing in the way of the widespread adopting of electric cars throughout the world.
As an element of its new energy policy, China has rolled back its subsidies and imposed tougher requirements on the performance of electric vehicles. Beijing is switching provincial funding in the direction of charging stations and related infrastructure projects. China is playing a hardball game and local governments have been told in no uncertain terms that if they don’t comply their fiscal subsidies will be cut by the central government.
While complete adoption of electric vehicles globally is forecast to need an investment of almost $6 trillion, setting up the infrastructure is being seen by many as the highest cost barrier to electric cars.
Indeed, chargers are estimated to account for around $2.6 trillion of the investment needed, while the expenditure on grids is budgeted at $2.8 trillion. To implement advancements like these is expected to take a few decades.
Auto manufacturers, in the meantime, are no doubt boosting their development and the production of EVs, but in the US, under the Trump administration, environmental regulations and efficiency standards are being rolled back so the electrification of vehicles has been slowed.
However, there is little doubt that the transition to electric vehicles is going to happen but nobody really knows exactly when and, at present, plug-in, electric cars represent less than 2% of the US market and only 2.2% globally.
Even with exponential growth and a record two million EVs sold throughout the world last year, just one in 250 cars currently on the roads is electric. Only in Norway, where subsidies and perks have been lavished on EVs, has the EV share of new car sales risen to about 30%.
All in all, it is hybrids that are benefitting from the EV setbacks, and where they used to be seen as just a fad on the road to fully electric cars and trucks, they now look set to make a big difference as the manufacturers use them as test beds to develop the technology for future motors and inverters that will prove useful in the EVs that are to come.
Hybrid electrified vehicles now look to be on target to account for 35% of worldwide auto sales within the next 10 to 15 years. They ease the transition from solely gas-powered cars by offering the dual technologies of electric and gas power for drivers. Even though EV ranges are improving rapidly, hybrids have an advantage over them because of the longer driving distances they are able to cover.